عودة ما بعد الشيوعية

كان انهيار الشيوعية في وسط وشرق أوروبا منذ خمسة عشر عاماً سبباً في جلب كم ضخم وإيجابي من التغيرات الديمقراطية. إلا أنه خلال العام 2006، وبعد مرور ما يزيد على العقد من الزمان من النضال في سبيل الفوز بقبول الغرب، أصبح الخواء الأخلاقي والسياسي الذي خلفته الشيوعية جلياً واضحاً. ولكن هل من الممكن إحداث توازن جديد بين الفلسفة الديمقراطية وبين السحب العكسي الناتج عن التاريخ السياسي والثقافي للمنطقة؟

في بولندا على سبيل المثال، أدى المزيج السائد بين الكاثوليكية والقومية إلى اكتساب المجتمع هناك نوعاً من المقاومة للشيوعية (مقارنة بفلسفة العدالة والديمقراطية الاجتماعية التي كانت سائدة في تشيكوسلوفاكيا قبل الحرب). ألا أن هذه الأجسام المضادة المقاومة للشيوعية عملت أيضاً ضد تقبل البولنديين بشكل كامل للديمقراطية الليبرالية.

الحقيقة أن الشعوبيين من جناح اليمين في بولندا والشعوبيين من جناح اليسار في سلوفاكيا قد تحالفوا في الحكم الآن مع أحزاب قومية متطرفة. وفي المجر يتولى حزب المعارضة الرئيسي "فيديتسيز" تنظيم المظاهرات أمام مبنى البرلمان للمطالبة باستقالة الحكومة، حتى بعد أن فازت باقتراع الثقة. وفي جمهورية التشيك أخفقت حكومة الأقلية اليمينية في الفوز باقتراع الثقة في البرلمان بعد ستة أشهر من المشاحنات. وجاء انضمام بلغاريا إلى الاتحاد الأوروبي مسبوقاً بسباق رئاسي بين شيوعي سابق (الفائز الذي زعم إعجابه بالاتحاد الأوروبي) وبين فاشستي أصلي (الذي يقول إنه يكره الأتراك، والغجر، واليهود).

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