¿El regreso de las guerras justas?

SALZBURGO – Cuando la guerra amenazaba Kosovo hace diez años, el entonces ministro de exteriores de Alemania, Joschka Fischer, explicó que el principio que siempre había regido su participación en política era: “Nunca más la guerra, nunca más Auschwitz”. Sin embargo, la limpieza étnica y la violencia en Kosovo pronto le dejó en claro que había momentos en los que era necesario escoger entre dos imperativos: a veces sólo se puede evitar un nuevo Auschwitz mediante la guerra.

La idea de una “guerra justa”, legitimizada por una justa causa (causa justa), si bien ha sido menospreciada por muchos años, está de moda nuevamente. La noción se miraba en menos porque cualquier bando en guerra tiende a ver su propia causa como justa. Más aún, sin un juez imparcial, un ganador siempre pude imponer su ampquot;verdadampquot;  a los vencidos, como ocurrió con el Tratado de Versalles después de la Primera Guerra Mundial.

Si  bien parece que las “guerras justas” están de regreso, las leyes internaciones también han llegado a  condenar el emprender guerras agresivas (ampquot;injustasampquot;) como un crimen penalizable, con la consecuencia de que cada bando en conflicto declara ahora que sus guerras son una defensa contra un ataque exterior, muy al estilo de lo que Hitler hizo en 1939. (De hecho, todos los ministerios de guerra se han convertido en “ministerios de defensa”, lo que hace que uno se pregunte contra quién se debe defender un país si ya no hay atacantes.) Sin embargo, en este tema también el ganador es quien determina quién fue el agresor, por lo que es una buena cosa el que Hitler no haya salido victorioso.

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