正义战争的回归?

萨尔茨堡——随着10年前战争降临科索沃,时任德国外长的约施卡·费舍尔明确地解释了他一直以来的参政原则:“永远不再有战争,永远不再有奥斯维辛!”但科索沃的暴力和种族清洗很快就让他明白有些时候必须在两难之中做出抉择:有些时候,只有战争才能防止新的奥斯维辛浮出水面。

尽管多年以来一直遭到公众的蔑视,但是被正义事业赋予了合法性的“正义战争”的理念正在重新获得市场。这种理念曾经遭到人们的反对,因为战争的任何一方都倾向于认为自己的事业合乎道义原则。此外,在缺乏公正判断的情况下,获胜者总能像在一战后签订《凡尔赛条约》那样,把自己的“真理”强加到被征服者的身上。

随着“正义战争”的回归,国际法也已经开始将发动侵略(“非正义”)战争作为理应受到惩罚的罪行来加以谴责,结果造成了当今世界的参战各方都宣称自己是为了防御外国的袭击,这样的伎俩希特勒在1939年也曾经用过。(事实上,现在所有的战争部都已经变成了“国防部”,让人不禁奇怪如果不再有攻击方的存在,这些国家还需要防御些什么。)但是在这个问题上,谁是侵略者同样要由胜者来裁定,因此希特勒没有获胜真是再幸运不过。

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