美国现实主义的回归

纽约——有关美国外交政策的争论许多都是老生常谈——例如,是孤立主义还是国际主义,单边主义相对于多边主义,最近讨论最为激烈的是:美国的外交政策的根本目的是影响其他国家的外部政策还是直接干涉其他国家的内政。

关于“现实主义”和“理想主义”的争论一直是激烈且持久。在冷战时期,有一种声音认为美国应该“击垮”苏联,摧毁共产主义制度,给它带来资本主义的民主制度。另一些人这样做过于危险,因为苏联拥有核武器。美国当时采取的外交政策是“遏制”,就是限制苏联政权的权力及对周边的影响力。结果是,经过40年的“遏制”政策,苏联及其帝国轰然倒塌。这些虽然不是美国外交政策的主要目的 ,但这都是美国外交政策所带来的结果。

乔治·W·布什就是近期美国外交政策“理想主义”的典范。小布什采取的是所谓“民主和平论”,就是民主不仅仅对本国的国民适用,也应该适用于美国邻国乃至以及其他国家。

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