Margaret Scott

Le retour de 1948

TEL AVIV – La conférence des Nations Unies commémorant le 60ème anniversaire de l’UNRWA (Office de secours et de travaux des Nations unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient) ne pouvait pas se dérouler à un meilleur moment. La restitution des terres occupées en 1967 continuera d’être l’une des conditions indispensables à la résolution du conflit israélo-palestinien, mais c’est l’héritage de la guerre de 1948 que les deux parties du conflit ont placé au cœur du débat.

Paradoxalement, c’est le Premier Ministre Israélien Benyamin Netanyahu qui a rouvert le dossier de 1948, en demandant que les Palestiniens reconnaissent Israël en tant qu’état juif. Cette demande a ramené la quête pour la paix à ses fondamentaux, dans laquelle la question des réfugiés est condamnée à jouer un rôle central.

L’intention de Netanyahu visait essentiellement à forcer les Palestiniens à admettre que le droit au retour des réfugiés ne s’applique seulement qu’à l’État Palestinien, et non à Israël. Mais la véritable signification de cette demande repose sur le fait qu’il intervient à un moment où l’action politique du Premier Ministre Salam Fayaad représente un véritable défi au Mouvement National Palestinien : choisir entre un esprit vindicatif ou celui de la construction d’un État.

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