La crisis de la cooperación

PARÍS – El ascenso de las economías emergentes en todo el mundo ha generado mucho optimismo, no solo en términos de desarrollo económico sino también de cooperación global. Sin embargo, el avance hacia un orden mundial multipolar no ha reforzado el multilateralismo. Todo lo contrario, la lógica de la soberanía nacional ha recuperado protagonismo: las principales economías socavan sistemáticamente la cooperación en temas que van desde la seguridad para el comercio hasta el cambio climático.

Un buen ejemplo es el confuso espectáculo del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas sobre la guerra civil en Siria. Hace apenas dos años, el Consejo aprobó una resolución autorizando la intervención militar en Libia, la primera en poner en práctica el principio de la "responsabilidad de proteger" (R2P), que la Asamblea General aprobara por unanimidad en 2005.

Pero las potencias emergentes pronto se convencieron de que Occidente había usado la protección de la población civil de Libia como un pretexto para causar un cambio de régimen (aunque, siendo realistas, hubiera sido imposible proteger a la población sin derrocar el gobierno de Muammar Gaddafi). Ahora la mayoría de estos países rechazan el R2P, viéndolo como una treta de los gobiernos occidentales para legitimar sus intentos de atentar contra la soberanía nacional.

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