Die Krise der Kooperation

PARIS – Der Aufstieg der Schwellenländer hat für viel Optimismus gesorgt, nicht nur was wirtschaftliche Entwicklungen anbelangt, sondern auch im Hinblick auf die globale Zusammenarbeit. Doch der Wandel zu einer multipolaren Weltordnung hat den Multilateralismus nicht gestärkt. Tatsächlich ist das Gegenteil der Fall: Die Logik nationaler Souveränität hat ein Comeback gefeiert und große Volkswirtschaften unterlaufen regelmäßig die Zusammenarbeit in verschiedensten Bereichen − angefangen bei Sicherheit über Handel bis zum Klimawandel.

Nehmen wir das Durcheinander im Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen in Bezug auf den Bürgerkrieg in Syrien. Noch vor zwei Jahren hatte der Sicherheitsrat eine Resolution verabschiedet, die ein militärisches Eingreifen in Libyen genehmigt – die erste Resolution, in der das Prinzip der Schutzverantwortung (R2P) zum Tragen kommt, das 2005 einstimmig von der UN-Vollversammlung angenommen wurde.

Die Schwellenländer sind allerdings schnell zu der Überzeugung gelangt, dass der Westen den Schutz der libyschen Zivilbevölkerung als Vorwand für einen Regimewechsel benutzt hat (obwohl es, realistisch betrachtet, unmöglich gewesen wäre, die Bevölkerung zu schützen ohne die Regierung von Muammar al-Gaddafi zu stürzen). Nun lehnen diese Länder die Schutzverantwortung weitgehend ab, die sie als Instrument betrachten, mit dem westliche Regierungen ihre Versuche legitimieren, die nationale Souveränität zu beeinträchtigen.

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