L’érosion de la coopération

PARIS – La montée en puissance des pays émergents dans le monde entier a généré un optimisme certain, non seulement en termes de développement économique, mais également au plan de la coopération mondiale. La transition vers un nouvel ordre mondial multipolaire n’a pourtant pas renforcé le multilatéralisme. Bien au contraire : la logique de la souveraineté nationale est revenue au premier plan et les principales économies mondiales ne cessent de saper la coopération sur des questions allant de la sécurité aux échanges commerciaux en passant par le changement climatique.

Prenons par exemple la confusion prévalant au Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies à propos de la guerre civile en Syrie. Il y a deux ans à peine, le Conseil avait approuvé une résolution autorisant une intervention militaire en Libye – la première résolution à avoir appliqué le principe de la responsabilité de protéger (R2P), adopté à l’unanimité par l’Assemblée générale en 2005.

Mais les puissances émergentes se convainquirent rapidement que l’Occident s’était servi de la protection de la population civile libyenne comme prétexte pour imposer un changement de régime (bien qu’il aurait été à l’évidence impossible de protéger la population sans renverser le régime du colonel Mouammar Kadhafi). Aujourd’hui, ces pays rejettent dans leur majorité le principe R2P, le percevant comme un instrument utilisé par les gouvernements occidentaux pour légitimer leurs tentatives d’empiètement sur les souverainetés nationales.

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