Der Fluch natürlicher Ressourcen

Es gibt ein seltsames Phänomen, das unter Wirtschaftswissenschaftlern als Fluch der Ressourcen bekannt ist. Dieser Name rührt daher, dass Länder mit umfangreichen natürlichen Ressourcen im Durchschnitt eine schlechtere Wirtschaftsleistung zeigen als Länder, die über weniger solcher Ressourcen verfügen. Einige Länder allerdings, die über natürliche Ressourcen im Übermaß verfügen, weisen eine bessere Wirtschaftsentwicklung auf als andere, und einigen geht es gut. Warum wirkt sich der Fluch der Ressourcen so ungleich aus?

Vor dreißig Jahren wiesen Indonesien und Nigeria - beides vom Öl abhängige Länder - ein vergleichbares Prokopfeinkommen auf. Heute ist das Prokopfeinkommen Indonesiens viermal so hoch wie das Nigerias. Tatsächlich ist das Prokopfeinkommen Nigerias (legt man jeweils den Dollarkurs um 1995 zugrunde) gefallen.

Ein ähnlicher Vergleich lässt sich zwischen Sierra Leone und Botsuana anstellen. Beide verfügen über reiche Diamantenvorkommen. Botsuana allerdings wies in den vergangenen dreißig Jahren ein durchschnittliches jährliches Wirtschaftswachstum von 8,7% auf, während Sierra Leone im Bürgerkrieg versank. Die Versäumnisse bei der Entwicklung des ölreichen Nahen Ostens sind Legion.

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