Die regionale Route zum weltweiten Freihandel

MADRID – Die todgeweihte Doha-Runde der multilateralen Freihandelsgespräche wartet zurzeit auf ihre Sterbesakramente, und somit hat eine neue Welle der regionalen Handelsgespräche de facto die Schaffung eines globalen Handelssystems übernommen. Die Regierung unter Präsident Barack Obama hat die Vereinigten Staaten in den Mittelpunkt dieser veränderten Landschaft gestellt und nimmt an zwei großen Verhandlungen gleichzeitig teil: der Transatlantischen Partnerschaft für Handel und Investitionen (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, TTIP) mit der Europäischen Union und der Transpazifischen Partnerschaft (Trans-Pacific Partnership, TPP) mit elf Ländern in Mittel- und Südamerika sowie Asien.

Als die einzige Partei in beiden Initiativen sind die USA gut positioniert, um sie entweder harmonisch voranzutreiben oder den Fortschritt der einen Verhandlung gegenüber der anderen auszunutzen. Davon abgesehen, dass der zweite Ansatz Amerikas direkte Verhandlungspartner beeinträchtigte, würde er auch dem Fortschritt bei der Schaffung eines auf Regeln beruhenden globalen Systems schaden.

Die neue Strategie der Regionalverhandlungen kann nur dann erfolgreich sein und eine Grundlage bieten, auf der ein internationales Handelssystem errichtet werden kann, wenn die TTIP und TPP ausgewogen und für die größere internationale Gemeinschaft offen sind. Andernfalls besteht die Gefahr, kostspielige globale Ungleichgewichte und sogar Zersplitterung zu schaffen.

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