Le chemin régional vers le libre-échange mondial

MADRID – Face à l’agonie actuelle des pourparlers multilatéraux du Cycle de Doha sur le libre-échange, c’est désormais sur un nouvel ensemble de négociations commerciales régionales que repose de facto l’établissement du système commercial mondial. L’administration du président Barack Obama a placé les États-Unis au cœur de cette évolution, s’engageant simultanément dans le cadre de deux négociations majeures : le Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d’investissement (PTIC) avec l’Union européenne ; et le Partenariat transpacifique (PTP) auprès de 11 États d’Amérique et d’Asie.

En tant que seul acteur à prendre part à ces deux initiatives, les États-Unis bénéficient d’une position unique leur permettant soit de faire avancer les deux démarches en harmonie, soit de tirer parti des avancées de l’un au détriment de l’autre. Au-delà de l’impact immédiat qu’il engendrerait à l’endroit des partenaires de négociation de l’Amérique, le choix de cette deuxième approche entraverait lourdement le progrès vers l’instauration d’un système mondial fondé sur les règles.

La nouvelle stratégie de négociations régionales ne pourra aboutir et poser les fondations sur lesquelles bâtir un système commercial international qu’à condition que le PTIC et le PTP s’équilibrent, et soient accessibles à la communauté internationale au sens large. À défaut, nous nous exposerions à la menace d’instauration de déséquilibres mondiaux lourds de conséquences financières, voire à un risque de fragmentation.

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