Der wirkliche Lange Marsch

Jede Nation hat ihren Gründungsmythos. Für das kommunistische China ist es der Lange Marsch – eine Geschichte die dem von Moses angeführten Auszug der Israeliten aus Ägypten gleichkommt. Ich bin damit aufgewachsen.

Der Mythos ist schnell erzählt. Die junge Kommunistische Partei und ihre drei Roten Armeen wurden Anfang der 1930er Jahre von Chiang Kai-sheks nationalistischer Regierung aus ihren Stützpunkten im Süden vertrieben. Von ihren Feinden verfolgt und gepeinigt, überquerten sie hohe Gebirge, reißende Flüsse und unwegsames Weideland, wobei Mao den Zug von Sieg zu Sieg lenkte. Nach zwei Jahren und 16.000 Kilometern der Standhaftigkeit, des Mutes und der Hoffnung entgegen unglaublich schlechten Aussichten erreichten die Roten Armeen Nordwestchina. Nur ein Fünftel der 200.000 Soldaten war übrig geblieben – erschöpft, übel zugerichtet, aber voller Trotz. Ein Jahrzehnt später schlugen sie zurück, besiegten Chiang Kai-shek und gründeten Maos Neues China.

Inwieweit hält Chinas Gründungsmythos der Wirklichkeit stand?

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