El renacer de Utopía

La renuncia de Franz Müntefering a la presidencia de los socialdemócratas alemanes ante el desafío del ala izquierda de su partido ha puesto al descubierto, al igual que el referéndum francés sobre la constitución europea que se celebró en mayo, divisiones ideológicas profundas -no sólo en cuanto a Europa sino en cuanto a las bases mismas de la sociedad y la economía. Detrás de las críticas que se hacen a la UE y a los gobiernos nacionales por "no ser lo suficientemente sociales" se esconde una imagen de la Unión como una trampa que está obligando a sus miembros a ceder ante las fatídicas disciplinas del mercado y ha privado así a los líderes nacionales de su capacidad de alcanzar metas sociales importantes. Parece que ahora estas divisiones habrán de dar forma no sólo a la futura coalición de gobierno en Alemania sino al futuro de la política en toda Europa.

En Francia esta división es evidente no sólo en los extremos de la derecha y la izquierda, y en los círculos gaullistas tradicionalmente nacionalistas, sino también entre la mayoría de los electores socialistas, quienes decidieron rechazar la postura pro-europea de la dirigencia del partido.

Este debate fundamental no amainará pronto. Por el contrario, se ha intensificado, como lo demuestran las elecciones en Alemania y con unos comicios presidenciales que se acercan en Francia. En este último país, la intensidad es particularmente visible en las filas socialistas. Ahora que los preparativos para el congreso del partido en noviembre están en su apogeo, está resurgiendo un conflicto que se remonta a su fundación. De un lado está la visión socialdemócrata, que básicamente apoya la economía de mercado pero busca suavizar sus efectos más severos; del otro, está el punto de vista radical que exalta un revolucionario "rompimiento con el capitalismo".

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