Le retour de l'utopie

La démission de Franz Müntefering de la présidence du parti social-démocrate allemand face à l'opposition de l'aile gauche de son parti, de même que le référendum sur la Constitution européenne qui a eu lieu en France en mai dernier ont mis en lumière, au-delà des divergences sur l’Europe, l’importance des clivages idéologiques portant sur les fondements même de l’organisation économique et sociale. Derrière les critiques adressées aux différents gouvernements européens et à une Europe considérée comme “ pas assez sociale ”, se profile l’image d’une Union européenne qui contraint ses membres à se plier aux disciplines funestes de l’économie de marché, empêchant ainsi les responsables politiques de se fixer des objectifs sociaux de quelque importance. Ce clivage semble maintenant avoir des conséquences non seulement sur le futur gouvernement de coalition allemand, mais sur l'avenir politique à travers toute l'Europe.

En France, cette division se retrouve non seulement à l’extrême droite, à l’extrême gauche et dans certains milieux gaullistes, mais aussi au sein de la majorité de l’électorat socialiste qui a décidé de s’opposer à la position pro-européenne de la direction de son parti.

Le débat n’a cessé de se développer depuis. Il redouble même d’intensité, comme le montre les élections en Allemagne et alors que s'ouvre virtuellement la campagne présidentielle française.

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