Das Streben nach Investitionen

Das Treffen der Doha-Welthandelsrunde in Hongkong hat – wegen des langsamen Tempos bei der Liberalisierung der Landwirtschaft, zu dem sich die reichen Länder bereiterklärt haben – unter den Entwicklungsländern ein spürbares Gefühl der Frustration hervorgerufen. Es mag daher naiv und kontraproduktiv scheinen, die Messlatte anzuheben und vorzuschlagen, dass wir über die Frage des Handels hinausgehen und das Thema Investitionen an die Spitze unserer Prioritätenliste setzen sollten. Aber kann eine „Entwicklungsrunde“, die ihren Namen verdient, diese Herausforderung ignorieren?

Die Doha-Runde hatte sich ursprünglich mit der Frage der Investitionen befassen sollen. Die Entwicklungsländer jedoch entschieden sich, das Thema herabzustufen und sich stattdessen auf die Landwirtschaft zu konzentrieren. Diese Taktik hat sich als zweischneidiges Schwert erwiesen.

In China, Brasilien, Malaysia und Mexiko machen ausländische Direktinvestitionen zwischen 8% und 12% der Bruttoanlageinvestitionen aus – ohne das dadurch die Kreditaufnahme steigt. Die am wenigsten entwickelten Länder ziehen weniger als 3% der vom Norden in den Süden fließenden Investitionen auf sich; allerdings machen diese Kapitalflüsse mehr als 3% ihres BIPs aus, ein für Entwicklungsländer überdurchschnittlich hohes Niveau.

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