Comment réformer l'économie

PARIS – Consolidation budgétaire et réformes structurelles sont les nouveaux mantras de l'Europe. Les organisations internationales et les institutions de l'UE considèrent ces réformes comme une condition de la reprise économique, de la croissance et du succès de la lutte contre le chômage.

L'accord entre le gouvernement grec et la "troïka" (le FMI, la BCE et la Commission européenne) comporte sur 48 pages une liste détaillée de réformes.  Cette liste n'est pas aussi longue pour tous les pays, mais depuis la nouvelle législation de l'UE adoptée en 2010, tous reçoivent des recommandations spécifiques. Par exemple celles adressées à l'Italie concernent notamment l'efficacité de l'administration publique, la lutte contre la corruption, la gouvernance des banques, le marché du travail, l'enseignement, la fiscalité, l'ouverture du secteur des services et les infrastructures.

Une trop faible croissance de la productivité et un chômage tenace montrent qu'il faut réformer de toute urgence et en profondeur les économies européennes. Cette observation ne constitue cependant pas une base suffisamment solide pour réformer de manière efficace.

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