Propast produktivity

Po celá devadesátá léta rostla výkonnost v Evropě o osmnáct procent pomaleji než ve Spojených státech. Každá země v Evropě si vedla jinak, ale žádná z nich na tom lépe než Amerika nebyla. Na konci 90. let činil rozdíl v produktivitě oproti USA 7 % v Itálii, 9 % ve Francii a 12 % v Nizozemsku (tyto tři země si vedly poměrně dobře), ovšem už celých 25 % v Dánsku a 23 % v Británii. Co je příčinou těchto výrazných rozdílů?

Produktivita ekonomiky - tj. kolik toho vyprodukuje v přepočtu na jednoho pracujícího - závisí na třech faktorech: výši jejího kapitálu, kvalitě jejích pracujících a její schopnosti účinně zapojit pracovní sílu a kapitál do produkce výrobků a služeb, kterou ekonomové nazývají ,,celkovou faktorovou produktivitou". Pouze v dostupnosti kapitálu to není. Evropské firmy mají kapitálu spousty: už nejméně dvacet let (zřejmě v reakci na nepružné pracovní trhy) ostatně používají kapitálově mnohem náročnější technologie než firmy v USA.

V Dánsku je intenzita kapitálu o 80 % vyšší než v USA; ve Francii o 60 %, v Itálii o 5 %, v Německu o 40 %. Dokonce i ve Spanělsku vychází na pracujícího o 30 % více kapitálu než v Americe. Posun k technologiím, které šetří lidskou pracovní sílu, se do budoucna zřejmě nezmění: od poloviny 80. let se intenzita kapitálu evropských firem ve srovnání s firmami americkými zvýšila o 6 %.

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