Jaroslav Kaczynski and other Polish politicians Krystian Maj/ZUMAPRESS.com

“不自由的民主”的问题

普林斯顿—波兰转向极权主义统治给整个欧盟和北约内部敲响了警钟。自10月份掌权以来,雅罗斯瓦夫·卡钦斯基的法律与正义党(PiS)已经攻击了波兰宪法法院,将司法和行政部门政治化,并打击媒体多元主义。

批评者认为,以总理贝亚塔·希德沃为首的PiS政府(卡钦斯基则是幕后统治者,他不担任任何职位)的行动堪称建立“不自由的民主”的闪电战,与匈牙利总理维克托·欧班过去六年的所作所为差不多。但将波兰的形势称为不自由的民主是很大的误导——并且可能制约约束卡钦斯基和欧班等独裁者的措施。毕竟,受到攻击的并非自由主义,而是民主本身。

 “不自由的民主”这一概念可以追溯到美国外交政策思想家法里德·扎卡里亚(Fareed Zakaria)1977年的一篇文章,扎卡里亚用它来描述举行选举,但不遵守法治并且时常凌驾于政治制度的宪法制衡之上的政权。这是一个源于幻灭的概念。在共产主义倒台的梦幻岁月中,(至少在西方)出现了民主狂欢。“历史的终结”已经实现,选举、代议机构和法治看起来将永远齐头并进。

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