Dean Rohrer

包容性增长资本主义

伦敦—2012年,皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)发现,85%的美国自称中产阶级成年人认为,和十年前相比,维持生活水平对他们来说变得更加困难了。自称属于中低阶级或低级阶级的成年美国人比例从2008年的四分之一上升到现在的三分之一左右。皮尤中心的研究还发现,只有63%的受访者认为努力工作能带来成功,而1999年的比例为74%。

这些数字代表了世界最大经济体的公众情绪,应该引起其他多家政府和商业领袖的严重关注,特别是面临增长停滞和年轻人失业暴增的国家。事实上,1月IMF将其2013年欧元区增长短期展望向下修正至-0.2%。与此同时,西班牙正式数据表明其2012年四季度失业率升至26%(近600万人失业),为20世纪70年代中期以来最高值,年轻人失业率达到了55%。

增长需要——具体地说,是可以为广大无工作年轻人提供工作岗位并遏制不断上升的收入不平等性水平的包容性增长的需要——从未如此重要。尽管如此,眼下关于如何实现可持续包容性增长的争论仍狭隘地聚焦于政府和决策者的角色。私人部门——及其多方位的触及面、大量的现金持有量以及创新能力——的角色一直被忽视了。

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