Dilema střadatele

PEKING – Většina mezinárodních finančních krizí, které vypukly během posledních 200 let, byla výsledkem napětí vyvolaného recyklací kapitálu ze zemí s vysokými úsporami do zemí s úsporami nízkými. Současná evropská krize je toho ukázkovým příkladem. Téměř deset let proudil kapitál ze států s vysokými úsporami, jako je Německo, do států typu Španělska, kde byly úspory nízké. Výsledné nahromadění dluhu vytvořilo vlastní překážky a evropská ekonomika je nyní nucena najít novou rovnováhu.

Pokud k tomuto vyvažování dojde pouze ve Španělsku a dalších zemích s nízkými úsporami, pak musí být výsledkem mnohem vyšší nezaměstnanost, jak před 80 lety varoval John Maynard Keynes. Odpověď na otázku, zda tato nezaměstnanost zůstane omezená na země jako Španělsko, nebo zda se nakonec rozšíří i do států jako Německo, závisí na tom, zda prvně jmenovaná země setrvá v eurozóně.

Ačkoliv se zdá, že relativní postavení Německa a Španělska v oblasti úspor potvrzuje kulturní stereotypy, mají národní míry úspor s kulturními rysy pramálo společného. Místo toho do značné míry odrážejí domácí i mezinárodní politické přístupy, které určují míru spotřeby domácností.

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