Pressefreiheit contra Privatsphäre

LONDON – In der aktuellen Rechtsprechung ist der Schutz der Privatsphäre zu einem großen Thema geworden. Das „Recht auf Privatsphäre“ ist in der Allgemeinen Erklärung der Menschenrechte der Vereinten Nationen verankert und durch Artikel 8 der Europäischen Menschenrechtskonvention gewährleistet. Aber diesem Artikel 8 steht Artikel 10 gegenüber, der das „Recht auf freie Meinungsäußerung“ absichert. Welches Recht soll nun im Konfliktfall die Oberhand behalten?

Unter welchen Umständen ist es beispielsweise gerechtfertigt, die Pressefreiheit zu beschneiden, um das Recht auf Privatsphäre zu schützen oder umgekehrt? Dieselbe Frage stellt sich auch bei der Abwägung zwischen dem Recht des Bürgers auf Datenschutz und staatlichen Forderungen nach Zugang zu persönlichen Informationen zur Bekämpfung der Kriminalität, des Terrorismus und so weiter.

Die Meinungsfreiheit ist eine fundamentale Freiheit in der Demokratie. Sie bietet den notwendigen Schutz gegen Machtmissbrauch und Vertuschung von Fehlverhalten öffentlicher Amtsträger. Niemals kam diese Freiheit wirksamer zur Geltung als während der Untersuchungen zum Watergate-Skandal, der Richard Nixon im Jahr 1974 zu Fall brachte. 

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