Roboter am Gehirn

CALGARY – Die Einführung der Elektrokaustik durch Harvey Cushing und William Bovie im Jahr 1926 (in der mithilfe von hochfrequentem Strom Blutgefäße versiegelt oder Schnitte gemacht werden) hat die Neurochirurgie verwandelt. Angesichts der Präzision, die zur Operation an einem empfindlichen Organ wie dem Gehirn erforderlich ist, trieb die Verbindung mechanischer Technologien mit chirurgischer Kunst die Entwicklung in diesem Feld voran.

Fortschritte in der Neurochirurgie streben immer Minimalisierung an. Wie in jedem anderen Bereich der Chirurgie gilt: Je weniger die Prozedur in den Körper eingreift, desto weniger wahrscheinlicher ist es, dass sie die Lebensqualität des Patienten beeinträchtigt, und desto eher kann der Patient seine normalen Aktivitäten wieder aufnehmen.

Bei empfindlichen neurologischen Eingriffen gilt dieser Grundsatz in besonderem Maße. Aufgaben wie die Verschiebung kleiner Blutgefäße mit nur ein bis zwei Millimetern Durchmesser oder die Entfernung eines Gehirntumors ohne Beschädigung des umliegenden Gewebes erfordern Technologien, die wie das Operationsmikroskop oder multimodale Abbildungswerkzeuge die Fähigkeiten der Chirurgen ergänzen und erweitern.

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