La política de los valores

El debate sobre las elecciones estadounidenses no ha amainado. ¿Cómo logró el Presidente George W. Bush obtener tres millones de votos más que el Senador John Kerry y, además, una mayoría republicana electa en ambas cámaras del Congreso? No hay acuerdo en las respuestas, pero dos temas se repiten en muchas de las explicaciones.

Una es la personalidad. En tiempos de incertidumbre y amenaza, la gente tuvo más confianza en el presidente que conocían que en el candidato que todavía no se había puesto a prueba. El segundo tema son los valores. La gente votó por un conjunto de valores más que por políticas específicas. En efecto, algunos (se dice) estaban de acuerdo con las políticas de Kerry, pero de cualquier forma le dieron su voto a Bush porque se sentían "a gusto" con su actitud general.

Es claro que los Estados Unidos actualmente están profundamente divididos en términos electorales. Un arco de estados azules (demócratas) en el este, norte y oeste rodea una enorme área roja (republicana) en el centro y el sur. Más aún, las divisiones se reproducen a nivel local. Ya no es necesario trazar los límites de los distritos electorales para beneficiar a algún partido político en particular. La gente de hecho tiende a mudarse a zonas donde la mayoría comparte sus valores, ya sean republicanos o demócratas.

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