سياسة القِـيَـم

حتى الآن لم تهدأ المناقشات بشأن الانتخابات الأميركية. كيف تسنى للرئيس جورج دبليو بوش أن يحصل على ثلاثة ملايين صوت زيادة على الأصوات التي حصل عليها السيناتور جون كيري ، وكيف نجح حزبه الجمهوري في الحصول على الأغلبية في المجلسين التشريعيين؟ لا يوجد قدر كبير من الاتفاق على الإجابة، ولكن هناك فكرتان رئيسيتان تتكرران في العديد من التفسيرات.

تدور الفكرة الأولى حول الشخصية. ففي وقت تسوده حالة من عدم اليقين، فإن ثقة الناس في الرئيس الذي يعرفونه لابد وأن تفوق ثقتهم في مرشح لم يختبر بعد ولم تثبت مواقفه. أما الفكرة الثانية فتتمحور حول القيم. فقد أدلى الناس بأصواتهم انتصاراً لمجموعة من القيم وليس لسياسات محددة. ومما يقال إن بعض الناخبين اتفقوا مع كيري في سياساته إلا أنهم أعطوا أصواتهم للرئيس بوش ، لأنهم أحسوا "بالاطمئنان" لمواقفه العامة.

من الواضح أن الولايات المتحدة تعاني الآن من انقسام عميق فيما يتصل بالمسألة الانتخابية. فهناك قوس من الولايات الديمقراطية يمتد من الشرق إلى الشمال وحتى الغرب ويطوق منطقة ضخمة تتكون من الولايات الجمهورية في الوسط والجنوب. وفضلاً عن ذلك فإن الانقسامات تتوالد على المستوى المحلي. ونستطيع أن نقول إن تقسيم المناطق الانتخابية لمصلحة حزب سياسي معين لم يعد أمراً ضرورياً، وذلك لأن الناس يميلون في واقع الأمر إلى الانتقال إلى المناطق التي تحتوي على أغلبية سكانية تشاركهم القيم التي يعتنقونها سواء كانت تلك الأغلبية من الجمهوريين أو الديمقراطيين.

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