La política de la frustración

¿Es cierto que la extrema pobreza alimenta la violencia y, finalmente, la revolución? Muchos lo creen así, e intentan explicar fenómenos como las insurgencias guerrilleras y el terrorismo islámico en esos términos.

Sin embargo, Karl Marx y Alexis de Tocqueville, los dos grandes analistas sociales del siglo diecinueve, sabían mejor lo que mueve a las personas y lo que hace cambiar las sociedades. La extrema pobreza genera apatía, no rebelión. A lo más, los muy pobres pueden ser utilizados para ocasionales demostraciones de furia, pero no son el material del cual los terroristas o los revolucionarios están hechos.

Un grupo mucho más importante en cualquier sociedad son quienes han comenzado a avanzar a nuevas condiciones de vida, pero encuentran bloqueado su camino. Sus deseos y ambiciones no son poco realistas si se consideran las circunstancias, pero se ven frustrados. Las cosas no avanzan tan rápido como lo desean, o no lo hacen del todo, debido a condiciones que no controlan. Las oportunidades existen, pero no se pueden aprovechar ni hacer realidad.

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