Die Politik der Frustration

Führt extreme Armut zu Gewalt und letztlich zur Revolution? Viele Menschen sind dieser Ansicht und sind bemüht, von Guerillaaufständen bis hin zum islamistischen Terrorismus reichende Phänomene dementsprechend zu erklären.

Karl Marx und Alexis de Tocqueville allerdings, die beiden großen Gesellschaftsanalytiker des 19. Jahrhunderts, hatten eine bessere Vorstellung davon, wie Menschen funktionieren und was gesellschaftliche Veränderungen hervorruft. Extreme Armut erzeugt Apathie, nicht Rebellion. Die ganz Armen lassen sich höchstens für gelegentliche Demonstrationen der Wut nutzen, aber sie sind nicht der Stoff, aus dem Terroristen oder Revolutionäre gemacht sind.

Eine sehr viel entscheidendere Gruppe sind in jeder Gesellschaft diejenigen, die dabei sind, aufzusteigen, dann aber sehen, dass ihnen der Weg verstellt ist. Ihre Wünsche und Ziele sind unter den gegebenen Umständen nicht unrealistisch, aber sie sind frustriert: Die Dinge bewegen sich weniger schnell, als sie es sich wünschen, oder überhaupt nicht – und zwar aufgrund von Umständen, die sie nicht steuern können. Gelegenheiten bestehen, können aber nicht ergriffen oder realisiert werden.

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