La politique de la frustration

L'extrême pauvreté engendre-t-elle la violence, et, au final, la révolution ? Beaucoup le pensent, et cherchent ainsi l'explication de phénomènes allant des guérillas  au terrorisme islamiste.

Karl Marx et Alexis de Tocqueville, les deux grands analystes sociaux du dix-neuvième siècle, étaient plus au fait du mode de fonctionnement des êtres, et de ce qui fait changer les sociétés. La misère engendre l'apathie, pas la rébellion. Si les plus déshérités peuvent être utilisés au mieux pour des manifestations de colère ponctuelles, ils ne constituent pas l'étoffe des terroristes ou des révolutionnaires.

Le groupe vraiment critique, dans n'importe quelle société, est celui dont les membres ont commencé à acquérir de nouvelles conditions de vie et se retrouvent dans une impasse. Leurs désirs et leurs ambitions n'ont rien d'irréalistes en les circonstances, mais ils sont frustrés. Les choses n'évoluent pas aussi vite qu'ils le voudraient, ou pas du tout, à cause de conditions qu'ils ne contrôlent pas. Les opportunités existent, mais ne peuvent être saisies ou concrétisées.

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