Les sanctuaires terroristes des Philippines

La présence de sanctuaires d’insurgés ou de terroristes dans des pays non-belligérants est l’une des situations les plus épineuses et explosives qui soient en relations internationales. Au cœur de la guerre du Vietnam, de la destruction du Liban, et des problèmes rencontrés par la coalition en Irak, c’est aussi aujourd'hui un aspect essentiel de la guerre contre le terrorisme en Asie du Sud-Est.

Le Vietnam se distinguait de la Corée et de la Malaisie - où prévalaient la politique d’endiguement et la lutte contre les insurrections - parce que les communistes pouvaient déborder les alliés au Sud du pays en se servant des territoires “ neutres ” du Cambodge et du Laos. Comme la présence de l’OLP au Liban jusqu’en 1982, cette stratégie a plongé d’infortunés pays d’accueil dans la guerre civile et provoqué des invasions par des pays plus puissants, stimulant encore davantage les mouvements extrémistes, en l’occurrence les Khmers rouges, le Hezbollah et le Djihad islamique.

Comme d’autres pays d’accueil auparavant, les Philippines sont un Etat faible, en paix avec ses voisins et avec l’Occident. Pourtant, depuis 1994, les zones de non-droit du Sud du pays ont remplacé l’Afghanistan comme premier lieu d’entraînement et de refuge pour les djihadistes d’Asie du Sud-Est. La plupart des recrues sont des Indonésiens membres du réseau de la Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), de Mujahidin Kompak, ou de groupes du mouvement Darul Islam.

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