الحاسب الآلي الشخصي يبلغ عامه الخامس والعشرين

في شهر أغسطس/آب من العام 1981 طرحت شركة IBM في الأسواق 5150 حاسب آلي شخصي. لم يكن حقاً أول حاسب آلي شخصي، ولكن تبين أنه كان بالفعل "الحاسب الآلي الشخصي الحقيقي". ولقد أشعل هذا الحدث ثورة، ليس في عالم الأعمال فحسب، بل وأيضاً في الطريقة التي كان الناس ينظرون بها إلى العالم.

كان الحاسب الآلي الشخصي الذي طُـرِح في عام 1981 بمثابة انفصال تام عن النموذج التجاري الذي كانت شركة IBM تتبناه قبل ذلك، والذي كانت بموجبه تؤجر أجهزة الحاسب الآلي ولا تبيعها. وبطرح ذلك العدد من الأجهزة في عام 1981 انتقلت IBM إلى الإنتاج الضخم لسلعة قياسية باستخدام مكونات منتجة بواسطة شركات أخرى. ولقد سمحت “Big Blue” كما تُـعْـرَف شركة IBM للشركات الأخرى (وأبرزها شركة مايكروسوفت التي كانت وليدة آنذاك) بإنتاج برامج الحاسب الآلي الخاصة بها.

لكن الخير ليس دوماً جزاء العمل الطيب. فبطرحها للحاسب الآلي الشخصي دمرت IBM نفسها عملياً كشركة. فلقد أدى إبداعها الجديد إلى نهوض عدد ضخم من الشركات الجديدة النشطة، الأمر الذي أرغم IBM على إعادة تشكيل بنيتها بالكامل حتى تتمكن من منافسة تلك الشركات الجديدة ـ وهذا مجرد مثال واحد للتأثيرات الاجتماعية التحولية التي خلفها الحاسب الآلي الشخصي.

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