颗粒物排放的两难抉择

斯德哥尔摩——进入地球大气层的颗粒物排放会影响气候和人类的健康。因此应该竭力限制,对不对?从健康的角度考虑,上面的答案是肯定的;但矛盾的是,限制此类排放会导致全球变暖情况恶化。这究竟又是为什么?

燃烧化石燃料、木材和其他生物物质会增加“黑”、“白”两类空气悬浮颗粒。所有排放中均含有数量各异的这两种物质。黑色颗粒大多来自小规模、低能效的生物燃料燃烧,也可能来自亚洲和非洲的农业废弃物焚烧。相比之下,白色颗粒则主要来自于燃烧煤和石油所产生的硫。

因为黑色颗粒含烟尘并能吸收阳光,他们被认为会导致全球变暖增加。但白色颗粒能将射入的部分阳光反射回宇宙,因此对地球气候会产生冷却的效果。

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