扑热息痛的两难困境

惠灵顿-扑热息痛(在美国又名醋氨酚)是世界上最常用的药物之一。由于其安全性,它成为解热镇痛的首选药物。但是10年前,有人曾推测扑热息痛的使用可能会增加感染哮喘病的危险。有人认为二十世纪八十年代美国儿童不再使用阿斯匹林转而使用扑热息痛可能正是导致那段时期儿童哮喘病流行的原因所在。

研究人员认为用扑热息痛替代阿斯匹林可能导致过敏免疫反应的增强,由此增加了对哮喘和其他过敏性疾病的易感性。从那时起,多项流行病研究报告了哮喘与在怀孕期间、儿童以及成年阶段服用扑热息痛之间的关联性。这些研究使人们认识到服用扑热息痛可能是引起哮喘病感染的一个重要的危险因素。

最近在医学杂志柳叶刀发表一项针对儿童哮喘病的大型国际流行病研究所得到的最新证据也支持这一推测。这项由国际儿童过敏气喘病研究组织所进行的研究分析了31个国家里的73个中心超过20万名六七岁的儿童。这些儿童的父母或监护人都完成了一份书面问卷调查。该问卷询问了有关哮喘、鼻炎(花粉病)和湿疹的当前症状以及几个危险因素,包括在孩子一周岁以前使用扑热息痛治疗发热的情况以及在过去12个月中使用扑热息痛的频率。

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