La mafia del ozono

Ahora que se ha ratificado el Protocolo de Kioto e incluso Rusia lo ha firmado con retraso, está surgiendo una amenaza contra un hito anterior en materia de protección medioambiental internacional: el Convenio de Viena y el Protocolo de Montreal para defender la capa de ozono estratosférico. La amenaza tiene un origen insólito: la delincuencia organizada.

La razón es sencilla. Con vistas a proteger la capa de ozono estratosférico, se han logrado acuerdos internacionales para prohibir el uso y el comercio de las substancias químicas que destruyen el ozono, llamadas clorofluorocarburos (CFC). Para substituirlas por otras más benignas, hay que renovar el equipo en que se las utiliza, como los congeladores, los refrigeradores y las unidades de producción de espuma de plástico.

Pero es mucho más barato, si bien está prohibido, usar el antiguo equipo y rellenarlo con CFC, cuando sea necesario, que comprar máquinas nuevas y usar los substitutos medioambientalmente más benignos, pero más costosos. Como ocurre con cualquier prohibición, así se creó un mercado... y con él una oportunidad de negocio para delincuentes bien organizados y medioambientalmente irresponsables.

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