El cuco de la externalización

NUEVA YORK – La externalización de servicios ha sido una causa persistente de pánico y proteccionismo en los últimos años, especialmente en Estados Unidos desde la elección presidencial de 2004. En aquel momento, el candidato demócrata, el senador John Perry, tras enterarse de que se habían tercerizado los rayos X digitales del Hospital General de Massachusetts en Boston y que de ahora en más serían examinados por radiólogos en la India, denunció a las empresas que recurrían a la externalización comparándolas con Benedict Arnold, el traidor más tristemente célebre de la historia estadounidense. 

Tras el paso en falso de Kerry sobrevino una alarma sobre la externalización en todo Occidente. Si el libre comercio ha de recuperar el respaldo de los estadistas que hoy dudan sobre si liberalizar el comercio con los países en desarrollo, deben derribarse los mitos que convierten a la externalización en un epíteto.

Mito 1: La tercerización será como un tsunami. Mientras que hasta un economista inteligente como el ex miembro de la Junta de la Reserva Federal Alan Blinder así lo creyera, no es probable por varios motivos, tanto "naturales" como generados por el hombre. Consideremos apenas dos.

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