La revolución de terciopelo anaranjado

La “revolución anaranjada” de Ucrania alcanzará su punto culminante el 26 de diciembre, cuando el Primer Ministro Víctor Yanukovich y el antiguo Primer Ministro Viktor Yushchenko vuelvan a disputarse una segunda votación para la presidencia. Ya no parece posible que tenga éxito un fraude en masa de votos para dar la victoria a Yanukovich como el que hizo a centenares de miles de ucranianos salir a las calles de Kiev para defender sus derechos. Aun así, el futuro democrático de Ucrania no está garantizado.

Ucrania está viviendo una verdadera revolución liberal, semejante a las grandes revoluciones liberales europeas de 1848 y que recuerda a la “revolución de terciopelo” de 1989 en Praga. Después de cinco ańos de un crecimiento económico anual medio de 9 por cierto, resulta sorprendente que las reivindicaciones económicas estén ausentes de la campańa, como también todas las reivindicaciones socialistas e incluso sociales. Los ucranianos no piden más –ni menos- que democracia, libertad y Estado de derecho.

Los resultados de las elecciones impugnadas indicaban que el país está geográfica y étnicamente dividido, con una victoria abrumadora de Yushchenko en diecisiete regiones occidentales y centrales y el predominio de Yanukovich en diez regiones orientales y meridionales. Sin embargo, gran parte de las diferencias entre regiones puede explicarse por su grado de democracia y transparencia más que por la etnicidad. Por ejemplo, Yushchenko venció en varias regiones de habla rusa, en particular la capital, Kiev, mientras que Yanukovich consiguió el mayor apoyo en las autoritarias Donetsk y Luhansk, más orientales.

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