Die Samtene Revolution in orange

Wenn Ministerpräsident Viktor Janukowitsch und der ehemalige Ministerpräsident Viktor Juschtschenko am 26. Dezember zur Wiederholung der Präsidentenwahl in der Ukraine antreten, wird die „Orange Revolution“ ihren Höhepunkt erreichen. Massiver Wahlbetrug zu Janukowitschs Gunsten, der Hunderttausende Ukrainer zur Verteidigung ihrer Rechte auf die Straßen von Kiew trieb, scheint keine Aussicht auf Erfolg zu haben. Dennoch ist die demokratische Zukunft der Ukraine noch nicht garantiert.

In der Ukraine findet derzeit eine echte liberale Revolution statt, ähnlich den großen europäischen Revolutionen im Jahr 1848 oder der Samtenen Revolution in Prag im Jahr 1989. Nach fünf Jahren mit einem durchschnittlichen Wirtschaftswachstum von 9 % fehlen im ukrainischen Wahlkampf wirtschaftliche Themen in auffallender Weise ebenso wie sämtliche sozialistischen oder sogar sozialen Forderungen. Die Ukrainer fordern nicht mehr – und nicht weniger – als Demokratie, Freiheit und Rechtsstaatlichkeit.

Die Ergebnisse des ungültigen Wahlganges erweckten die Vorstellung, bei der Ukraine handelt es sich um ein geografisch und ethnisch geteiltes Land, in dem Juschtschenko die überwältigende Mehrheit in den siebzehn westlichen und zentralen Provinzen gewann, während Juschtschenko die östlichen und südlichen Provinzen dominierte. Ein großer Teil dieser Gegensätze ist allerdings eher auf den unterschiedlichen Grad an Demokratie und Offenheit als auf Ethnizität zurückzuführen. So gewann Juschtschenko beispielsweise in mehreren russischsprachigen Regionen, vor allem in Kiew, während Janukowitsch die größte Unterstützung in den autoritär geführten Regionen Donezk und Luhansk im Osten bekam.

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