La oportunidad de Seúl

SEÚL – El orgullo desmedido suele engendrar desastres. La causa fundamental de la actual crisis mundial fue el orgullo intelectual en forma de creencia ciega en que los mercados resolverían siempre sus propios problemas y contradicciones. Treinta años después de la revolución de Reagan y Thatcher, el péndulo ideológico ha empezado a inclinarse en la dirección opuesta.

En los cien últimos años, siempre que ha habido un cambio de esa magnitud en las creencias sobre las relaciones Estado-mercado, una gran conmoción político-económica se ha seguido. Por ejemplo, la primera guerra mundial señaló el fin del liberalismo decimonónico del laissez-faire e inició un período de sistemas económicos centrados en el Estado. La Gran Depresión y la segunda guerra mundial iniciaron la nueva era del sistema de Bretton Woods, con una relación Estado-mercado más equilibrada.

Asimismo, la crisis financiera mundial de 2008 puso fin a tres decenios de neoliberalismo, caracterizado por el libre comercio y la mundialización financiera. Aún no conocemos la naturaleza de la época que tenemos por delante; sólo podemos estar seguros de que la economía mundial está en plena transición importante y de que los antiguos usos dejarán de funcionar.

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