Une nouvelle épreuve grecque pour l’Europe

PRINCETON – L’année dernière, il était facile d'oublier la crise de la dette grecque. Regorgeant d’apports de fonds publics, la Grèce était apparemment en voie de guérison. Même si les plans de privatisation accusaient des retards, les Grecs ont été félicités pour avoir redoublé d’efforts pour l’austérité budgétaire. Dans le triomphalisme tranquille qu’a connu l’Europe cet été, les attentes qui n’ont jamais été aussi basses furent faciles à dépasser.

Mais la Grèce est sur le point de mettre encore une fois l’Europe à l’épreuve, et ce, avec virulence.

La crise de la Grèce était d’une ampleur spectaculairement démesurée. Depuis la divulgation, du camouflage des gouvernements successifs de la Grèce de leurs gigantesques déficits budgétaires et déséquilibres macroéconomiques, le pays n’a plus accès aux marchés internationaux de financement obligataire. Depuis 2010, le pays est tributaire des injections massives de fonds publics d’une taille sans précédent. Par contre, les créanciers de la Grèce – le Fonds monétaire international et les gouvernements européens – ont sous-estimé les problèmes du pays, le renflouement a simplement retardé la faillite inévitable de l’État grec et a entraîné la contraction abrupte de l’économie, rendant le tout encore plus douloureux.

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