Severní pól v ohrožení

PAŘÍŽ – Už od dob, kdy lidstvo začalo mapovat svět, nás severní a jižní pól fascinují, a to jak básnicky, tak vědecky. S výjimkou hrstky velrybářů a badatelů se však jen málokdo vypravil podívat se na oba póly blíže. Poklidná nehybnost Arktidy a Antarktidy byla v dokonalém souladu s lidskou lhostejností. Příchod globálního oteplování však toto vše změnil.

Někdejší lhostejnost samozřejmě nebyla všeobecná. Ve vzácném výtrysku kolektivní politické inteligence a také ve snaze zabránit jakékoliv hrozbě mezinárodního konfliktu byla v roce 1959 podepsána mezinárodní smlouva o správě Antarktidy, která předurčovala Antarktidu výlučně k mírumilovným cílům. Uznala stávající územní nároky, označila je za „zamrzlé“ a zakázala jakékoliv fyzické projevy nároků na suverenitu nad územím Antarktidy.

Podstata a obsah této smlouvy byly ryze diplomatické. Teprve po její ratifikaci se objevily první ekologické problémy. Jejich řešení bylo v roce 1972 začleněno do revidované smlouvy v podobě konvence o ochraně tuleňů, po níž v roce 1980 následovala konvence o ochraně přírodních druhů. Ze všeho nejdůležitější však byl v roce 1991 podpis protokolu v Madridu, který upravoval ochranu životního prostředí na Antarktidě.

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