处于危险中的北极地区

巴黎-自从人类开始为地球画地图,南极和北极无论从浪漫的诗意还是从科学的角度上看,都让我们心驰神往。但除少数捕鲸者和探险者之外,没有太多人曾有近距离接触它们的机会。肃穆寂静的南北极和人类的冷漠曾经匹配得如此完美。但全球变暖的出现,改变了这一切。

当然,过去的冷漠也并非毫无例外。一次罕见的集体政治智慧的奋力协作,并也为了防止任何国际冲突的发生,使得一项治理南极洲的国际条约于1959年得以签署。该条约规定南极洲只可作和平目的之用,它承认现有的对领土的声称,并宣布“冻结”领土声称,并禁止一切在南极洲土地上对主权的具体坚持的行为。

就其性质和内容来看,该条约纯粹是外交辞令式的。在条约通过后,才出现了首批环境问题。这些问题都已被加入了修订版的条约中,它们分别是1972年的海豹保护公约,之后是1980年的野生动物保护公约。最重要的是于1991年在马德里签署的有关保护南极环境的协议。

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