Nobelova cena a Einsteinův duch

Letos 10. prosince oslavíme sté výročí prvního udělení Nobelových cen. Po celou dobu své existence jsou tyto ceny předmětem velkého zájmu a diskusí.

Alfred Nobel zemřel 10. prosince roku 1896. Po otevření jeho poslední vůle vyšlo najevo, že celý svůj značný majetek věnoval na vznik cen, které měly nést jeho jméno. Hovořil v ní o pěti cenách: za fyziku, chemii, fyziologii nebo medicínu, literaturu a mír; a jmenoval čtyři instituce, které ceny měly udělovat: Královskou švédskou akademii věd (fyzika a chemie), Karolinska Institutet (fyziologie nebo medicína), Svédskou akademii (literatura) a skupinu volenou švédským parlamentem, později pojmenovanou ,,Norský výbor pro udělování Nobelových cen`` (mír). Jen na vysvětlenou: Svédsko a Norsko tvořily v té době unii.

Od doby vzniku Nobelových cen bylo v původních oblastech uděleno na 650 medailí a diplomů. V roce 1968 pak Svédská národní banka zřídila ještě Nobelovu cenu za ekonomii. V převážné většině se tyto ceny týkají převratných vědeckých objevů, mistrovských literárních děl a mírových pokusů v oblastech zmítaných násilím.

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