下一种福利国家

市场经济有效率,但却不公正。因为工资是由稀缺法则决定的,所以有些人赚不到足够的钱来过体面的生活。

在西欧,福利国家对这些人进行帮助。它以社会援助、失业福利和提前退休福利等替代性收入的形式确保一条社会文化生存的保障线。如果市场不能通过你的劳动为你提供足够的收入,那么国家就会为你提供一笔收入并且不要求你付出劳动。

虽然这一政策是以人道主义为出发点,但它在很大程度上也应该为令欧洲头疼不已的失业率高涨负责。原因很简单。替代性收入形式是不劳而获的工资。它们针对雇主门日益不愿或不能满足的私有经济建立“预留工资”或最低工资需求。

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