دولة الرفاهة الاجتماعية القادمة

قد يكون اقتصاد السوق فعّالاً لكنه ليس عادلاً. وذلك لأن الأجور تتحدد وفقاً لقانون الـنُدرة، فبعض الناس لا يستطيعون أن يكسبوا ما يكفي من المال لكي يعيشوا حياة كريمة.

في أوروبا الغربية تساعد أنظمة التأمين الاجتماعي هؤلاء الناس. فهي تضمن لهم الحد الأدنى من حياة ثقافية اجتماعية كريمة بأن تقدم لهم دخولاً بديلة في هيئة إعانات اجتماعية، وإعانات بطالة، أو معاشات التقاعد المبكر. وإذا لم تقدم لك السوق دخلاً كافياً في مقابل عملك، فإن الدولة سوف تقدم لك دخلاً دون أن تطالبك بأي عمل في المقابل.

ولكن على الرغم من أن الغاية من هذه السياسة من المفترض أن تكون إنسانية، إلا أنها مسئولة إلى حد كبير عن البطالة الحاشدة التي تعاني منها أوروبا. والسبب بسيط، فالدخول البديلة هي في الواقع أجور بلا مقابل. فهي تشكل "أجوراً احتياطية" أو الحد الأدنى من الطلب على الأجور في مقابل الاقتصاد الخاص الذي أصبح أصحاب العمل على نحو متزايد إما غير راغبين أو غير قادرين على إرضائه.

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