Le défi des prochains dirigeants chinois

PEKIN – Lors d'une récente mission d'enquête en Chine organisée par le European Council of Foreign Relations (ECFR), je suis partie avec l’idée que le principal défi du pays consistait à stimuler la consommation intérieure pour maintenir le rythme de la croissance. Mais j'ai terminé la mission avec l'image complexe d'une Chine mélange d’affirmation d'elle-même et incertitude, aplomb et anxiété.

Alors qu'il est imminent, le 18° Congrès du Parti communiste chinois (PCC) est entouré de mystère. Il aura sans doute lieu en octobre, mais on ne connaît toujours pas la date exacte, et il en est de même de son processus interne et des discussions préparatoires.

Durant une grande partie de l'année, on croyait être sûr d'une chose : le prochain secrétaire général du PCC serait Xi Jinping, un homme dont personne ne saurait épuiser 30 secondes pour définir sa vision politique. Mais sa disparition mystérieuse - il n'est pas apparu en public durant près de deux semaines en septembre et il a annulé abruptement des rencontres avec la secrétaire d'Etat américaine Hillary Clinton et avec le Premier ministre de Singapour (ce qui est exceptionnel de la part d'un dirigeant chinois, si pointilleux avec le protocole) - a multiplié les spéculations. Cette disparition soulève également la question de savoir si un leadership aussi secret peut gouverner efficacement la deuxième économie mondiale.

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