El próximo FMI

El sistema monetario y financiero internacional ha presenciado enormes cambios en las últimas décadas. La rápida expansión de los flujos de capital entre fronteras, la constante innovación financiera y la profundización de los mercados financieros plantean crecientes desafíos no sólo para quienes diseñan las políticas a nivel nacional, sino también para las instituciones financieras internacionales. Esto ha sido particularmente cierto en el caso del FMI en su búsqueda por servir a sus miembros de todo el mundo, y ha generado un debate de importancia fundamental acerca de la dirección estratégica del Fondo.

La actual revisión estratégica del FMI no surge de la nada. El proceso de reformas fue iniciado a fines de los años 90 y continuado por el ex Director Ejecutivo Horst Köhler a través de importantes iniciativas, las que -especialmente los esfuerzos por fortalecer la función de vigilancia del FMI y el así llamado “marco de trabajo de acceso excepcional”- ahora se deben consolidar e implementar de manera consistente.

Por ejemplo, la introducción de estándares y códigos, informes sobre su observación (ROSC, por sus siglas en inglés), los Programas de Evaluación del Sector Financiero (FSAP, por sus siglas en inglés) y el aumento resultante en la transparencia del Fondo pueden contribuir a mejorar la vigilancia bilateral, regional y multilateral. La política de acceso excepcional, orientada tanto a mejorar la capacidad de predicción de la política de préstamos del Fondo como a salvaguardar su estado financiero, todavía está esperando su primera prueba real.

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