La réforme du FMI

Le système financier et monétaire international a considérablement évolué lors des dernières décennies. La croissance rapide des transferts internationaux de capitaux, l'apparition d'innovations financières à rythme continu et l'importance croissante prise par les marchés financiers constituent un défi, tant pour les décideurs politiques que pour les institutions financières internationales. C'est particulièrement vrai en ce qui concerne le FMI, car il est au service de la communauté internationale et sa stratégie fait l'objet d'un débat de toute première importance.

Ce débat n'est pas entièrement nouveau. Le processus de réforme du FMI a été lancé à la fin des années 1990 et il a été poursuivi par Horst Köhler, son ancien directeur général, qui a pris plusieurs initiatives importantes. Ces réformes, notamment celles visant à renforcer le rôle de surveillance du FMI et la politique d'accès exceptionnel (financement excédant les limites normales), doivent être maintenant finalisées et appliquées.

Ainsi, l'introduction de normes et de codes, de rapports sur l'observation des normes et des codes (RONC) et de programmes d'évaluation du secteur financier (PESF) permet d'aboutir à une plus grande transparence du Fonds, ce qui ne peut qu'améliorer la surveillance bilatérale, régionale et multilatérale. Mais la politique d'accès exceptionnel qui vise à renforcer la clarté de la politique de prêt du Fonds tout en assurant sa stabilité financière n'a toujours pas été testée grandeur nature.

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