联合国的新面孔

2007年1月1日,南朝鲜前外长潘基文(Ban Ki-Moon)将在科菲·安南(Kofi Annan)10年任期届满后成为新任联合国秘书长。安南在削减贫困和人权领域所展露出来的外交艺术和领导能力曾令世界耳目一新,但随之而来的伊拉克战争却使世界陷入分裂,并把财政资源和人们的注意力从危机地区和像气候变化、疾病控制、可持续能源利用和清洁用水等重大的长期课题上转移开去。不久前的美国选举和亚洲全球影响力的提高再次创造出机遇,可以让世界各国的注意力重新回到我们这个星球所面临的最为关键的挑战。

新任秘书长不仅要面对贫穷、环境、核不扩散及联合国改革等一系列挑战,而且要解决伊拉克、伊朗、阿富汗、巴勒斯坦、黎巴嫩、索马里、缅甸、苏丹、北朝鲜等一系列热点问题。就在不久前,通过威胁和制裁、甚至是战争来影响这些国家局势发展的企图都遭到了失败,多数国家的境遇比5年之前更加糟糕。显而易见,我们需要采取新的对策。

很久以来,包括潘基文的祖国南朝鲜在内的亚洲主要国家更愿意用外交手段和经济措施相结合的方式来迎接复杂的挑战。他们认为目前的当务之急是巩固动荡地区的长期繁荣,而不能依靠单纯的经济制裁和武力威胁。这种平衡的对策至关重要,因为造成世界上多数热点麻烦不断的不只是政治因素,还有被政治因素所掩盖的饥饿、疾病和环境危机等挑战。

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