Jon Krause

La révolution de la neuroéconomie

Ce n'est que depuis quelques années que l'on fait un lien entre neurosciences et économie, aussi la neuroéconomie en est-elle encore à ses balbutiements. Son développement tient d'une caractéristique que l'on rencontre souvent dans l'Histoire des sciences : les grandes découvertes viennent en général de lieux inattendus. Un domaine scientifique peut devenir totalement stérile en l'absence d'une approche fondamentalement nouvelle. Les universitaires peuvent se retrouver prisonniers de méthodes parfaitement reconnues en termes de vocabulaire et d'hypothèses,  au point que leur recherche en devient répétitive ou superficielle.

Les idées stimulantes qui séduisent de jeunes chercheurs et quelques vieux universitaires iconoclastes désireux d'aborder les choses sous un autre angle viennent de personnes qui apportent un regard entièrement neuf. C'est ainsi que se produisent les révolutions scientifiques.

La neuroéconomie a franchi très récemment un premier un cap, avec notamment la publication l'année dernière du livre intitulé Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis [Fondations de l'analyse neuroéconomique] de Paul Glimcher, un chercheur en neuroscience. Son titre est modelé sur celui de la thèse désormais classique de Paul Samuelson publiée en 1947, Fondations de l'analyse économique, un travail qui a participé à une révolution de la théorie économique.

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