民族国家への再訪

民族国家の居場所がなくなったと主張することが流行になっているようだ。グローバリゼーションと呼ばれるものは、国家が自国内の諸事情を管理できなくなる状態を意味する。彼らは欧州連合やASEAN、南米南部共同市場(Mercosur)などのように、他の国々と共同しなければならず、そして国連や世界銀行、世界貿易機関などの世界規模の機関にますます頼らなければならなくなるだろう。

しかし、このような見方は危険性を伴う。実際、より詳しく検査すれば、単純に間違っているとは言えずとも、胡散臭さが浮き彫りになる。長所と短所を併せ持つ民族国家は、健在なのである。

まず長所から見ていけば、民族国家は自由の条件が繁栄する唯一の政治的空間であり続けている。EUのような組織体による民主主義の信任などは疑わしく、国連や他の国際機関における例には完全に欠如している。それどころか、新たな主体性への頻繁な追求にもかかわらず、ヨーロッパあるいはラテンアメリカ、またその他の地域で、また、新たな世界主義への、あるいは「世界市民社会」にまで及ぶ度々の言及にもかかわらず、大概の人が、自分の国に帰属する感じを覚える-彼らが市民である民族国家において、である。

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