L'État-nation revisité

Il est désormais à la mode de prétendre que l'État-nation a perdu sa place. La mondialisation, dit-on, signifie que les nations ne peuvent plus contrôler leurs propres affaires. Elles doivent s'unir à d'autres, comme dans le cas de l'Union européenne, l'ASEAN ou le Mercosur, et compter toujours plus avec les institutions internationales comme les Nations Unies, la Banque mondiale et l'Organisation mondiale du commerce.

Un tel point de vue est risqué. D'ailleurs, lorsqu'on y regarde de plus près, il s'avère suspect, voire simplement faux. L'État-nation, avec ses forces et ses faiblesses, est bien vivant et se porte à merveille.

Pour commencer avec ses points forts, l'État-nation reste le seul espace politique qui réussisse à la constitution de la liberté. Les références démocratiques d'organisations comme l'UE sont discutables, et totalement absentes dans le cas des Nations Unies et d'autres institutions mondiales. En outre, malgré la recherche fréquente de nouvelles identités, européenne, latino-américaine ou autre, et malgré de nombreuses références à un nouveau cosmopolitisme, ou même à une “société civile mondiale,” la plupart des gens se sentent chez eux dans leur propre pays, l'État-nation duquel ils sont des citoyens.

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