Pedro Molina

Die Wiedergeburt des Nationalstaats

CAMBRIDGE; MASS.: Einer der Grundmythen unserer Zeit ist, dass die Globalisierung den Nationalstaat zur Bedeutungslosigkeit verdammt habe. Die Revolution im Transport- und Kommunikationswesen, so hören wir, habe Grenzen eingedampft und die Welt schrumpfen lassen. Neue Regierungsmodi – von transnationalen Regulierungsnetzen über internationale zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen bis hin zu multilateralen Institutionen – würden die nationalen Gesetzgeber überwinden und ersetzen. Die nationale Politik sei angesichts der globalen Märkte weitgehend machtlos.

Die globale Finanzkrise hat diesen Mythos zerschmettert. Wer hat denn die Banken gerettet, für Liquidität gesorgt, Steuerimpulse gesetzt und die Sicherheitsnetze für die Arbeitslosen zur Verfügung gestellt, um eine eskalierende Katastrophe aufzuhalten? Wer ist dabei, die Regeln für die Aufsicht und Regulierung der Finanzmärkte umzuschreiben, um zu verhindern, dass sich die Situation wiederholt? Wen betrachten die Menschen als hauptverantwortlich für alles, das schief geht? Die Antwort ist immer die gleiche: die nationalen Regierungen. Die G20, der Internationale Währungsfonds und der Baseler Ausschuss für Bankenaufsicht waren überwiegend Nebenschauplätze.

Selbst in Europa, wo die regionalen Institutionen vergleichsweise stark sind, werden die politischen Entscheidungen überwiegend von nationalen Interessen und nationalen Politikern bestimmt – primär von Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel. Wäre Merkel in Bezug auf die stark verschuldeten Länder Europas weniger sparverliebt gewesen und hätte sie es geschafft, ihre Wähler von der Notwendigkeit eines anderen Ansatzes zu überzeugen, hätte sich die Krise in der Eurozone ganz anders entwickelt.

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